Potent is powered by Vocal creators. You support Joemarie C. by reading, sharing and tipping stories... more

Potent is powered by Vocal.
Vocal is a platform that provides storytelling tools and engaged communities for writers, musicians, filmmakers, podcasters, and other creators to get discovered and fund their creativity.

How does Vocal work?
Creators share their stories on Vocal’s communities. In return, creators earn money when they are tipped and when their stories are read.

How do I join Vocal?
Vocal welcomes creators of all shapes and sizes. Join for free and start creating.

To learn more about Vocal, visit our resources.

Show less

The Impact of The Industrial Age and The Rise of Capitalism

Health and the Environment Matters, Not Just Money

The Impact of The Industrial Age and The Rise of Capitalism

Joemarie C. Cristi, Student Junior

Devry University

My Philosophies

First of all, the philosopher who inspired the ethics and morality of this project is Ludwig Wittgenstein for his philosophies on logic, mathematics, the mind, and language. I’d say without logic then the mind won’t have the ability to adapt and improve. Our mind should be capable to learn with practice, and with wise use of our time. Anything can be learned as long as we put our minds to it, and we're willing to look for answers. I was never a math person, but with my wife’s help, the internet, and my university I was able to pass my previous algebra and statistics courses. Also, being able to speak two languages such as English and Tagalog (Filipino), gives me the upper hand when it comes to delivering messages to my people and others. With the help of Ludwig Wittgenstein's philosophies, the dilemma regarding how to combat global warming will be solved. The moral ethics behind saving the world from the rise of carbon emissions is simply considering the usage of renewable sources of energy such as solar, electric, and mycelium, which may involve some mind power, logic, math, and language. On the other hand, Thomas Hobbes believed that there is no such thing as morality, and that we are all self-interested, meaning humanity has come to the point where money and power are the two most important things in life. This shouldn’t be the case when we know the world that we live in could come to an end, if we don’t use our minds now to initiate a greener solution. By following Ludwig’s philosophies, we shouldn’t have to deal with warfare, but only the exact opposite, which is to save this planet from global warming. It is not selfish, nasty, and unkind, it is using whatever resource we have to make a difference in humanity and in the world.

Executive Summary

One week after the first rain of fall, wild edible mushrooms had started to grow in the forest of Point Reyes National Seashore. I was able to find various types of mushrooms such as Man on Horseback (yellow), Short Stemmed Russula, Blewit, Boletes and Pearl Oyster. These types of mushrooms will, later on, emerge more in-land after a couple rainier days from early winter to early spring.

Mushroom hunting/foraging has been a hobby of mine since I attended a two-day seminar with Tellur Fennur at his home base in Ukiah, CA. He is a great teacher, botanist, and mushroom hunter. He is definitely the go-to guru when it comes to wild edible mushrooms, and other plants as well. I highly recommend getting All That The Rain Promises by David Arora if you ever want to experience how to identify wild edible mushrooms.

So far, the mushrooms that I have been able to successfully identify are:

  • Oyster Mushrooms (White & Pearl)
  • Blewits
  • Man on Horseback
  • Boletes (Butter and Admirable Bolete)
  • Short Stemmed Russula
  • Western Amethyst Laccaria
  • Black Elfin Saddle
  • Candy Milk Caps

I have concluded that mushrooms grow more in-land as we get more rain later into the season. The mushrooms I have found at a nearby park were Blewits, Butter Bolete, Short Stemmed Russula, Western Amethyst Laccaria, Black Elfin Saddle, and Candy Milk Caps.

Memo

Wild edible mushrooms are nutritious for the body, as they may hold macro and micro nutritional values. They’re also good for the environment as the mycelium from beneath the ground helps supply nutrients and protection to neighboring plants and trees; and can also help prevent erosions.

There are certain fungi species that professionals and researchers are currently studying; Psilocybin, or also known as magic mushrooms, which they believe to cure a number of mental health disorders such as anxiety, drug addiction, alcoholism, PTSD, and many more. They’re even talking about getting enough signatures from the masses so legalizing shrooms could go on the ballot.

Not only that mushroom hunting is helping us cut the cost of our grocery bill on mushrooms, it is also a good physical exercise besides the experience of nature. Another thing is learning how to grow mushrooms for the sake of our environment and/or business potentials. As long as you have the willingness to learn, and follow instructions, then many things can be done as a hobbyist.

I believe anything is possible with the help of mycelium and fungi, so why don’t we do something different today, and start learning about the health and environmental benefits of mycelium.


Table of Contents

My Philosophies

Executive Summary

Memo

Annotated Bibliography

The Industrial Revolution

Nature’s Medicine is Like Magic

The Old Wise Man’s Knowledge

The Health & Environmental Benefits

Hunt or Grow Mushrooms

The Benefits of Mycelium

Produce Your Own Mushrooms

Series of Ethical Questions

References


I could never understand why we can’t fully acknowledge the fact that the Earth’s atmosphere is warming up due to the release of carbon emissions into our atmosphere with the constant burning of fossil fuels and/or coal. The buildup of greenhouse gases continues to rise as humanity continue to use automobiles, machineries, and other things that commonly use gasoline, which is the very by-product of fossil fuel; derived from crude oil. Researchers and experts who study our environment has evidence that the Earth’s climate had risen since the Industrial Revolution when humanity had finally discovered a new alternative source of energy besides air, water, and wood. If we don’t look further into renewable sources of energy during our current lifetime then it may be too late to save this planet from global warming. What we do today can ultimately prevent catastrophe from taking place. By exploring the capability of solar and electricity, we will be able to stand against the negative effects of greenhouse gases to our planet.

Mclamb, E. (2011). Ecology, The Ecological Impact of the Industrial Revolution. Retrieved 11/06/2018.

In one of the many articles, Mclamb (2011) talks about The Ecological impact of the Industrial Revolution. He believes that since we have discovered fossil fuels, since modernization took place, things have been created and done faster than ever before. Food, medicine, cars, and other human necessities quickly came to be. And so, people’s demand rose to the point that the supply had to be met. The use of machines to manufacture various things were the beginning of our realization that humans are no longer needed most of the time. In fact, robots or machines today are doing some of the hardest jobs that no human would be able to do in long periods of time. We have been dependent on fossil fuels/coal for so long that we’re now living in a generation where other sources of energy should be considered. It is only a matter of time until we experience the horrors of what the burning of fossil fuels/coal is really doing to our environment. As the Earth’s atmosphere warms up due to the buildup of greenhouse gases, ice caps could begin to melt, which could cause our sea-levels to rise. Rise in climate change could summon more violent storms than ever. As we use more and more of the traditional sources of energy that were discovered a few hundred years ago, then this could mean that the Earth’s atmosphere would flood with carbon emissions, which could one day end humanity.

I’m not rich, nor poor, but I’m definitely not greedy either. Our government capitalizes on a supply of things that we, as humans, demand. They are mainly concerned with what they can supply society for a profitable exchange. The pros and cons of this include that more and more people can now have easy access to food, medicine, cars, clothes, and more, because of privately-owned corporations that cater to human needs. On the other hand, a monopoly could be a result of capitalism, which means that large privately-owned corporations can, and will, do business, in whatever way possible. Their main intention is to get rich without the thought of what impact any of their actions could have on the planet. If we come to think of it, businesses' main purpose is to supply things to people, meaning their main concerns are production and manufacturing. These are one of the recipes that could impact Earth negatively as they usually involve the burning of fossil fuels/coal as an energy source to power machineries that do all the heavy lifting for these companies.

Pettinger, T. (2017). EconomicsHelp, Pros and Cons of Capitalism. Retrieved 11/06/2018.

There is an article written by Pettinger (2017) in regards to the Pros and Cons of Capitalism. He is an economics teacher, and contributes articles to the Economic Review and writes regularly on economics.

He believes that there is only either a positive or negative side (pros and cons) in capitalism. Like-minded individuals say large privately-owned corporations, government-funded organizations, etc. will always be about the money, regardless of what happens to the environment. Although, it might be true that these capitalists’ main concern is to become rich, money isn’t going to save the world from global warming. Sometimes, even businesses whose sole purpose is to play the monopoly game should be concerned that the Earth’s atmosphere hasn't gotten any better since the Industrial Revolution. Without a habitable planet, due to the rise of greenhouse gases/carbon emissions, all businesses and lifeforms would be lost. If we don’t find a solution to combat global warming by reducing the use of fossil fuels/coal as a source of energy, then it might be easy to say that we’re headed towards a destructive end. One can only hope and pray that humanity would start listening to its senses, and actually consider renewable sources of energy, such as electric/solar. Looking into these renewable sources of energy could reduce the release of carbon emissions to our atmosphere, which could prevent natural disasters from taking place. It is only a matter of time. The Earth’s atmosphere is not going to get any better until we do something about it. Everyone must take action, and do what is necessary to prevent anymore burning of fossil fuels/coal, while replacing them with more solar/electric powered substitutes.

Based on evidence that is backed up by research, it's clear that the world has gotten warmer every year since the 1950s. The elevation of carbon emissions had also been proven along with the rising of temperatures. Experts and researchers believe that it is humanity's own doing that’s causing the rise of temperatures, which is affecting a lot of areas around the globe. Sea waters are beginning to rise due to the melting of ice caps from the rising temperature of the planet. The ocean waters have warmed by more than 0.4 Fahrenheit since 1969. There's been decline of ice caps/sheets and glacial retreat from all around the world, and violent storms are becoming more common throughout the year in certain parts of the world. Not only that, due to the fact that more carbon emissions have been released into the Earth’s atmosphere since the Industrial Revolution, it is causing our sea waters to become acidic, which could be bad for the fishes and other living organisms of the ocean.

NASA (2018). NASA, Climate Change: How do we know? Retrieved 11/19/2018.

This is all evidence discovered by NASA regarding Climate Change, found on their official website. They believe that the entrapment of Earth’s greenhouse gases is causing the rise in temperature. The amount of man-made carbon emissions being released has never stopped increasing since the Industrial Revolution. If we don’t do anything about the constantly increasing levels of carbon emissions, our planet might one day end up like its sister planet Venus. Too many carbon emissions in our atmosphere could warm up our planet exponentially, making it not suitable for any life. Even as we speak, the Earth’s atmosphere is comparably different in comparison to the Earth of the Industrial Revolution (a few hundred years ago). Reduction of the use of fossil fuels, coal, and other man-made materials that have the potential to release carbon emissions into the air would help humanity, while considering renewable energy sources as the new alternatives. Global warming can be stopped, and prevented, with everybody doing their part to make this planet cleaner again. By looking into renewable sources, we would one day eliminate the problem that we started when we discovered fossil fuels and coal. The time to change our ways is now, before it’s too late for all humans. Millions of lives will be saved if we act now, and prevent global warming. Together as one, we can make this planet habitable for the future generations to experience. If we all do what’s right, by looking into solar, electric, and other renewable sources of energy, then the world would one day stop using fossil fuels, coal, and other non-renewable sources of energy which are harmful to Earth’s atmosphere.

If we look around us closely, the world is changing. Wildfires are happening more and more, year-round in some parts of the world, extreme weather conditions such as stronger storms, and unexpected heat waves are also becoming common in different areas of the world. All of humanity will be affected if we don’t act today. We must do what it takes to reduce carbon emissions, and slow down the increasing temperature of the globe in the hopes that the future generations will one day experience a cleaner world environment. As for the record, 2016 was the hottest year in history. “Globally, the average surface temperature has increased more than one-degree Fahrenheit since the late 1800s” (UCS, 2018). As we already know, fossil fuels are one of the carbon-emitting substances that’s damaging the Earth’s atmosphere, and not only that, coal, natural gas, and oil, plus the cutting/burning of trees, causing deforestation in the tropics, are also contributing to the ever-increasing temperature of our planet. Climate change has taken a toll on our planet with increased air pollution, and more intense allergy seasons. Flooding can also be one of the results of global warming as sea levels rise more and more from the intense heat trapped into our atmosphere with the potential to cause severe wildfires in dry areas of the world.

Union of Concerned Scientists (2018). Confronting the Realities of Climate Change. Retrieved 11/19/2018.

The Union of Concerned Scientists' beliefs are similar to NASA's, or other environmental organizations, doing their part to save our planet through scientific means and research. They believe that we can fight global warming together by avoiding misinformation that could cause us to doubt global warming, and its effects that have already impacted our planet. Preparation for intense heat waves, rising ocean levels, and wild fire risks are some of the few dangers we must anticipate in the future ahead. Stopping deforestation in tropical areas can help reduce carbon emissions as deforestation accounts for 10 percent of the world’s heat trapping-emissions. By taking action while knowing what needs to be done, we can all work together as one, and put a stop to global warming once and for all. Using fewer fossil fuels, coal, and other carbon-emission-causing resources should be the new norm as we progress with renewable sources of energy.

Our planet Earth has been around for millions of years, and the last catastrophic event we’ve had was the ice age. Scientists, researchers and organization of experts believe that it is humanity's own actions (since the Industrial Revolution) that has led to a rapid increase in Earth’s atmosphere temperature. The burning of fossil fuels has been responsible for more trapped greenhouse gases in our atmosphere, which is causing the world to deal with more intense natural disasters than ever (ex: intense storms, droughts, wildfires, rise of sea level, melting of ice caps, pollution, etc). The sun’s radiation is our natural source of greenhouse gas also known as the greenhouse effect, which is adding on to man-made carbon emissions.

National Geographic (2007). Youtube, Global Warming 101 | National Geographic. Retrieved 11/19/2018.

National Geographic believes that little changes, such as unplugging an electrical appliance, less usage of automobiles or anything that uses fossil fuels, coal, or other things that could release carbon-emissions to our atmosphere, would help humanity and the future generations to come. And most importantly, reduction of the cutting of trees would help our environment extremely, as this accounts for 10 percent of carbon emissions being released. Furthermore, humanity is living in the age of renewable sources of energy, where electric, solar, and other resources that don't use fossil fuel, coal, or others which can release harmful carbon emissions into our atmosphere, are recognized and consistently being considered. To combat global warming, and stop the further rising of sea levels, wildfires risk, drought, intense storms and water acidity; all humanity must look into the alternatives and ways to put an end to global warming.

To those people who likes to go camping/hiking along the coast during the wet season for entertainment, should consider attending a class or two hosted by an expert in Botanical medicine and also specialize in mushroom identification. Teller Fennur who is a skilled camper/hiker with various education in plant medicine, herbalism, and botany is the owner (and also a teacher) of Blue Wind of Botanical Studies in Oakland, CA. He is one of the best sources to consult in regards to both the health benefits of plant/mushrooms, when/where to find them in the wild, different safe techniques or methods for identifying edible/medicinal mushrooms, while avoiding the poisonous ones, and many others…

Blue Wind School of Botanical Studies. (2018). Edible & Medicinal Mushrooms of California: Weekend Workshop Winter Session, 2018.

Retrieved 09/18/2018.

Brodsky, C. (2015). The Ukiah Daily Journal, Chatting with Teller Fennur

Retrieved 09/18/2018.

Fenner, T. (2018). Blue Wind School of Botanical Studies, 2018 Winter-Spring-Summer Class Schedule. Retrieved 04/06/2018.

Teller Fennur would provide us with the necessary resources, such as book authors, and botanical/mushroom knowledge to get us going on our own to hunt for various kinds of mushrooms, which are commonly associated with certain types of plants. Not only that, mushrooms are nutritionally beneficial, it is also medicinally and environmentally beneficial. Some mushroom species are known to enhance the immune systems of humans. To learn more, simply book a class with Teller Fennur six months in advance, if you love being out in nature and exploring.

Teller Fennur is a great source when it comes to anything botanical or outdoor-mushroom related, as these are the fields he specializes in. Knowing what time of year (season), where to go, identification techniques that can be learned from experts-alike, or from recommended book authors should mostly help us in our quest to hunt for medicinal/edible mushrooms. It’s certainly a therapeutic feeling to be out in nature, while searching for mushrooms. The physical part of it is hiking or walking, which is beneficial to our health. Also, the fact that certain mushroom species can enhance our immune system, and have nutritional benefits as well.

Mcrae, M. (2017). Science Alert, Researh Shows Magic Mushrooms Can Offer Real Benefits in Depression Therapy. Retrieved 04/05/2018.

Do you believe in herbal medicine, or should I say mushroom medicine? There has been a lot of research and clinical trials on Psilocybin mushrooms aka magic mushrooms that says it can treat depression, anxiety, and addiction. Could this be the next Schedule I Controlled Substance to be legalized for medicinal use? The only way to know is if the petition that will allow citizens to vote for legalizing this mushroom gets enough signatures, and if more people become educated, and aware of its real benefits to humanity's mental health.

This source is good for informing certain audiences who might benefit from this information. People who may be looking for an alternative, and more natural medicine, hobbyists, and researchers are a few groups of people who might gain something from studying the mental health benefits of these psychoactive mushrooms in the future. Just like how cannabis started, medicinal mushroom can have its chance to become medicinal. Once approved by FDA, and the government, people can then start benefitting from its therapeutic effects, which can possibly change the world. With less people suffering from mental health disorders such as anxiety, addiction, PTSD, and depression; the world could be headed to a much happier place with less mental health problems in peoples’ lives.

Midwestgrowkits (2018). Midwestgrowkits, Midwestgrowkit. Retrieved 04/12/2018.

This is the perfect source for anyone looking to learn how to grow multiple species of mushrooms in mass quantities for an affordable price. Growing mushrooms is not only just good for the environment, but it is also a therapeutic hobby to have. Researchers and entrepreneurs should know the health benefits of mushroom growing for their well-being. Experts say that Mycelium, which is the fruiting body of mushroom, which naturally lies from beneath us can do beneficial things for the environment. So how about we start now and grow mushrooms, both indoor and outdoor, for the sake of our health and the environment!

This source is perfect for people looking to grow mushrooms for its therapeutic, educational, professional, and personal purposes, which can all fall within the categories of health and environmental issues, as these are the main concerns. By learning how to grow mushrooms, we can have the opportunity to produce our own crop of mushrooms for food and medicine, farm business, and we can save the environment by growing mushrooms outdoors. It’s a very useful skill to have during our lifetime, and can benefit us in so many different ways. Mushroom-growing should be a necessity, so people don’t have to spend their hard-earned money at grocery stores and just grow them for food. Some may decide to grow a lot and start their own farm.

Stamets, P. (2008). TED, 6 ways mushrooms can save the world retrieved 09/16/2018.

Stamets, P. (2009). Fungi Perfecti, The Search for Agarikon.

Retrieved 04/05/2018.

Stamets, P. (2018). Youtube, Paul Stamets: Mycelium Makes Mushrooms, Mushrooms Make Mycelium. Retrieved 09/16/2018.

Stamets, P (2018). Fungi Perfecti, Mycelium Running. Retrieved 04/06/2018.

Mycologist Paul Stamets talks about how mushrooms and its fruiting body Mycelium can help save the environment and our health by strengthening Earth’s and the human body’s immune system. He talks with great pride, and uses facts to communicate to his audience the benefits of mushrooms to both the environment and our health. He believes that both Mycelium and fungus can help save the universe. “Cleaning polluted soil, making insecticides, treating smallpox and even flu viruses.” He believes that mushrooms grow, because of Mycelium, and Mycelium grow, because of mushrooms. Some species such as the Lion’s Mane are considered smart mushrooms, and can also be eaten for both its macro-nutritional and immune system benefits. Not only do we have Mycelium naturally growing from beneath us, which provides both edible/medicinal mushrooms for the human population to explore, the Earth’s soil, plants and atmosphere benefits from the Mycelium’s magical presence alone. As Paul Stamets claimed, Mycelium can be used for cleaning polluted soil, making insecticides, treating smallpox, and even flu viruses. Mycologist Paul Stamets is also an author of numerous books that talks about mycelium, mushrooms, and their environmental/health benefits. He is also a speaker, medical researcher, and an entrepreneur. As you can see from the video link below, and many other sites such as TED that has video footage of Paul Stamets talking about his knowledge on Mycology, in-depth; I support Paul Stamets belief that mushrooms/Mycelium hold the answer to improving Earth’s environment, and the human immune system. As Paul stated, Mycelium and giant mushrooms have been around for 1,300 Million years, before plants existed 700 million years later.

Paul Stamets is one of the top sources to go to regarding mushroom growing, or hunting, mushroom identification, health/environmental benefits of mushrooms and more… He offers classes just like any expert who is willing to share their knowledge to people for a cost. The field of Mycology is not just for researchers, but also for hobbyists looking to learn new skills for personal or professional reasons, for health benefits and for environmental purposes.

The Industrial Revolution

Since the Industrial age (some 200-300 years ago) peoples’ demands were met faster than ever; from food, medicine, clothes, to housing, and other necessities that humans believe they need to have in order to functionally live a comfortable, ideal life. This was the beginning of the manufacturing of things such as automobiles with the help of machines. More and more things were created for people for which they are willing to pay (meaning that the supply has to meet the demand). Regardless of the impact it has on our planet. “From wind, water, wood to fossil fuels.” The Industrial age's huge leap in energy resources could potentially harm our planet due to the carbon emissions being released in our atmosphere with the burning of fossil fuels (McLamb, 2011).

During this time of humanity, the only way to reverse the effects of burning fossil fuels is by considering the harmful effects of green house gases being trapped in our atmosphere every time we use them as a source of energy. As the population grows, more and more of our resources would come close to depletion. On the other hand, companies that uses fossil fuels as energy should consider a renewable source of energy. In our modern time, more and more renewable sources of energy are being invented to fight the effects that the Industrial Revolution started, which could potentially lead to global warming. If we don’t act now then tomorrow could be bad for all of us.

The world of capitalism can only have so much impact on human lives, and those could be as simple as serving/catering to their needs, while earning money for those services (regardless of the effects of their actions to our planet or perhaps even the people). One example would be oil companies that control the prices of gasoline based on the competition within the economy. Oil companies don’t care about what happens to our environment, because the only way for them to get paid, and pay their workers, is to convince people to keep buying gasoline for their automobiles. Of course, they’re not going to tell people to stop buying gasoline for their car, or better yet, tell them to stop using automobiles that use gasoline. These oil companies' main intention is to make money with gasoline, and they could care less about what happens to our planet as a result of using fossil fuels as a source of energy. On the contrary, there are companies such as Tesla Motors, and other car manufacturers that want to use electric or Hybrid technology to reduce the release of carbon emissions into Earth’s atmosphere. In the end, there’ll be a solution to stop global warming, and put an end to the harmful effects of burning fossil fuels. Let’s just hope that everyone cooperates by giving renewable sources of energy a closer look, and ultimately leave everything that uses fossil fuels behind, and save our planet from catastrophe. Time is running out, and we must all work together to conquer the bigger issue of this planet.

Nature’s Medicine is Like Magic

Do you believe in herbal medicine, or should I say mushroom medicine? There has been a lot of research and clinical trials on Psilocybin mushrooms aka magic mushrooms that says they can treat depression, anxiety, and addiction. Could this be the next Schedule I Controlled Substance to be legalized for medicinal use? The only way to know is if the petition that will allow citizens to vote for legalizing this mushroom gets enough signatures, and if more people become educated and aware of its real benefits to humanity's mental health.

This source is good for informing certain audiences who might benefit from this information. People who may be looking for an alternative, and for more natural medicine; hobbyists, and researchers, might gain something from studying the mental health benefits of these psychoactive mushrooms in the future. Just like how cannabis started, medicinal mushrooms can have its chance to become a legal medicine. Once approved by FDA and the government, people can then start benefitting from its therapeutic effects, which can possibly change the world. With less people suffering from mental health disorders such as anxiety, addiction, PTSD, and depression; the world could be headed to a much happier place with less mental health problems in peoples’ lives.

The Old Wise Man’s Knowledge

Mycologist Paul Stamets talks about how mushrooms, and its fruiting body Mycelium can help save the environment, and our health by strengthening Earth’s, and the human body’s immune system. He talks with great pride, and uses facts to communicate to his audience the benefits of mushrooms to both the environment and our health. He believes that both Mycelium and fungus can help save the universe. “Cleaning polluted soil, making insecticides, treating smallpox and even flu viruses.” He believes that mushrooms grow, because of Mycelium, and Mycelium grow, because of mushrooms. Some species such as the Lion’s Mane are considered smart mushrooms, and can also be eaten for both its macro-nutritional benefits, and they can also benefit the immune system.

Figure 3. A picture taken by me of Paul Stamets holding an Agarikon Mushroom at the event called Mycology of Consciousness in Herbst Theater in San Francisco, 2016.

Not only do we have Mycelium naturally growing from beneath us, which provides both edible/medicinal mushrooms for the human population to explore, the Earth’s soil, plants, and atmosphere benefits from the Mycelium’s magical presence alone. As Paul Stamets claimed, Mycelium can be used for cleaning polluted soil, making insecticides, treating smallpox, and even flu viruses. Mycologist Paul Stamets is also an author of numerous books that talks about mycelium, mushrooms, and their environmental/health benefits. He is also a speaker, medical researcher and an entrepreneur. As you can see from the video link below, and many other sites, such as TED, that have video footage, you can find Paul Stamets talking about his knowledge on Mycology, in-depth.

I support Paul Stamets belief that mushrooms/mycelium holds the answer to improving Earth’s environment and the human  immune system. As Paul stated, Mycelium and giant mushrooms have been around for 1,300 Million years, before plants existed 700 million years later.

Paul Stamets is one of the top sources to go to regarding mushroom growing or hunting, mushroom identification, the health/environmental benefits of mushrooms, and more. He offers classes just like any expert who is willing to share their knowledge to people for a cost. The field of Mycology is not just for researchers, but also for hobbyists looking to learn new skills for personal or professional reasons, or health and environmental purposes.

Mycologist Paul Stamets has been doing Research on thousands of mushroom species with hundreds of thousands more waiting to be discovered by the likes of him, or people with similar interests. Paul simply does what he loves in nature, by searching for the endangered Fungi species known as Agarikon, and the network of white threads or roots called mycelium or mushroom spawn. Paul believes that both the human population, and mother Earth could benefit from the existence of Mushrooms, which could one day save the world. From fulfilling our macro-nutrient needs to increasing our immune system in order to fight off viruses & diseases (Stamets, 2009 & 2012).

Some mushrooms, however, are now under clinical trials due to their Mind-Altering Effects, which has the potential to cure a number of mental health disorders such as depression, addiction, and anxiety, with many more results soon to come. And as long as there are organizations who are allowed to study any Psychedelics for medicinal use, then it could very possibly be that they have been part of our evolution for thousands of years (Jr, 2017; Mcrae, 2017).

Keywords: Mushroom, Mycologist, Research, Fungi, Mycelium, Macronutrient, Mycelium, Spawn, Immune System, Viruses, Diseases, Mind Altering Effects, Psychedelics, Medicinal, Evolution, Mental Health Disorders

The Health and Environmental Benefits of Mushrooms

Most people probably think mushrooms are either edible or poisonous, but there is actually more to them than that. Society is influenced by what is normally seen on a daily basis, such as the fact that people can obtain common mushrooms at the grocery stores for food, but not medicinal mushrooms. As Paul claimed, there is an endangered mushroom called Agarikon that could potentially fight off viruses, diseases and more. More research is being done regarding this mushroom with hundreds of thousands more possibilities. On the other hand, Mycologist Paul’s Mission is, “My current priority is culturing the fungal residents in old growth forests. One mushroom species in particular beckons me: Agarikon, Fomitopsis officinalis. This mushroom has been used medicinally for thousands of years, and known for centuries as “elixirium ad longam vitam” (“elixir of long life”)” (Stamets, 2009).

Hunt or Grow Mushrooms

Have you ever thought of, or actually gone camping with family, friends, colleagues and/or co-workers before, in a forest, along the coast or by the lake? Camping can also be a great time to hunt for Mushrooms, which can be a fun group activity that requires some leg work, as it might have a few miles of hiking or so, deep within the coastal forests of the Pacific Northwest where Paul believes various kinds of mushrooms are found. Paul also has many books for hobbyists, and/or researchers to help identify and distinguish medicinal and edible mushrooms from poisonous kinds located on his website.

Paul also sells products for cultivating any mushrooms in the comfort of your home. He also teaches how to grow mushrooms using spore solutions, containers of substrates and materials to incubate, and fruit the mushrooms (Stamets, 2018). Furthermore, Blue Wind School is another good place to start if the general knowledge of how mushrooms grow in the wild is what you are seeking. Unlike Paul’s seminar on mushrooms alone, Blue Wind School can supplement your knowledge on nature as well, by allowing you to notice that some types of mushrooms are associated with certain types of plants, which can only be found in a few select places (Fenner, 2018). There are also books that these Experts would recommend to their students. Mushroom Demystified by David Arora, All That The Rain Promises by David Arora, Psilocybin Mushrooms of The World by Paul Stamets himself and more.

The Benefits of Mycelium to Our Planet

As stated before, Mycelium is the roots of white fuzzy threads, or networks where mushrooms spawn. Paul has briefly explained on his website the impact Mycelium has on our ecology

“Four components of mycorestoration" are described in detail:

  • Mycofiltration: the filtration of biological and chemical pathogens as well as controlling erosion
  • Mycoforestry and mycogardening: the use of mycelium for companion cultivation for the benefit and protection of plants.
  • Mycoremediation: the use of mycelium for decomposing toxic wastes and pollutants.
  • Mycopesticides: the use of mycelium for attracting and controlling insect populations.” (Stamets, 2018)

So, what is the wait for? Start learning and grow/hunt mushrooms today!

Produce your Favorite Mushrooms

By attending a seminar and getting firsthand experience with the experts, or learning on your own by acquiring the recommended books or google searching for instructions; anything can be achieved nowadays. At the very least, being able to grow mushrooms would cut the cost of our groceries, and could potentially open up new opportunities such as the beginning of a mushroom farm. Whether your goal is to get a good hike (while enjoying nature’s presence and good scenic views), to find mushrooms for food or medicine, or grow them for personal use or business purposes then learning about mushrooms is the first step to achieving any of the possibilities it holds for Mycologists or hobbyists. Even as a hobbyist alone, many things can be learned and done.

This is the perfect source for anyone looking to learn how to grow multiple species of mushrooms in mass quantities for an affordable price. Growing mushrooms is not only just good for the environment but it is also a therapeutic hobby to have. Researchers and entrepreneurs should know the health benefits of mushroom growing for their well-being. Experts say that Mycelium, which is the fruiting body of mushroom that naturally lies beneath us, can do beneficial things for the environment. So how about we start now and grow mushrooms, both indoor and outdoor, for the sake of our health, and the environment!

This source is perfect for people looking to grow mushrooms for its therapeutic, educational, professional, and personal purposes, which can all fall within the categories of health and environmental issues, as these are the main concerns. By learning how to grow mushrooms, we can have the opportunity to produce our own crop of mushrooms for food and medicine, farm business, and save the environment by growing mushrooms outdoors. It’s a very useful skill to have during our lifetime, and can benefit us in so many different ways. Mushroom growing should be a necessity, so people don’t have to spend their hard-earned money at grocery stores, and just grow them for food. Some may decide to grow a lot and start their own farm.

By simply knowing how to follow instructions, and apply the methods proposed on a reliable source you will be able to guarantee a higher success rate versus failure rate by thoroughly applying the methods acquired from the instructions provided by the source (Midwestgrowkit, 2018). Once the techniques have been mastered then growing your own fresh batch of indoor-grown mushrooms can happen in a minimum of two months to a maximum of three months wait-time. Every mushroom differs, and most fungi species prefers the temperature range of 77-82 Degrees Fahrenheit during the incubation stage. This is the stage when live tissue of mushroom spores has been injected inside a substrate jar (made with a mixture of grains), where the mycelium will form in 5-14 days. Once white-fuzz starts to form, it can take two to four more weeks until the substrate contents of the jar become 100 percent colonized. Thus, proceeding with the dunking phase where the substrate is re-hydrated, which requires that the substrate content be taken out of the jar, and transferred into a zip-lock bag.

The zip-lock bag will then have to be filled with filtered water, and be placed inside the fridge for 18-23 hours. After the time-frame, the re-hydrated substrate can be taken out of the zip-lock bag, and be broken up into pieces in a container where they will be mixed with vermiculite, and either a casing mix or manure mix. When the broken-up pieces, along with the other ingredients have been mixed, it is now time for the fruiting phase which can take about 7-10 days for pins to start showing. And this is when the need for more light is demanded, as this is the time that mushrooms need partial light source and the temperature range needs to be between 76-78 degrees Fahrenheit with moderate to tropical humidity levels to mature. The most important thing to remember when growing mushrooms are to always prepare a clean/sterile environment where you will inject live mushroom tissue/spores into a jar of substrates, ensure temperature ranges are stable throughout the day by using a digital thermometer and heating/cooling equipment, and making sure the mushroom substrate (during incubation/fruiting) get some lighting when the time is right. With a little knowledge about growing mushrooms we could spend less time hunting outdoors, and grow more for either personal or professional use. Hunting for mushrooms during the right time of the year could very well benefit those who seek them. What could be better than just growing alone? Be my guest and hunt, grow all year long, and experience the magic of mushrooms like never before! You never know where this could lead, for there are people willing to pay for edible/medicinal mushrooms. People that don’t want to make an effort to learn how to grow and hunt are usually the best clienteles.

Figure 4. A picture I have put together using Adobe Indesign with the help of the book All That the Rain Promises and More by David Arora and Google search of the trees mentioned from the book.

Series of Ethical Questions

Blanchard & Peale Method:

1. Is it legal?

Growing edible gourmet mushrooms for personal/professional purposes is legal as long as it is properly handled, and no unwanted chemicals are added; then it can be sold at farmer’s markets or to individuals, but may require licensing if it were to be sold to supermarkets and groceries.

2. Is it balanced?

It’s balanced, and good for the environment. On the other hand, many research is being done not only on the environmental benefits, but also the mental health benefits of certain fungi species that may one day become recognized for their medicinal values. Denver, Colorado is already talking about gathering enough signatures for these so-called magic mushrooms to go onto the ballot and hopefully get enough votes at the next election.

3. How will it make me feel about myself?

I would feel proud of myself if I can mass-produce mushrooms for the environmental, personal, professional and medicinal benefits.

Laura Nash Method:

1. Have you defined the problem accurately?

The problem is the world is changing year after year due to the rising temperatures of the planet, because of the increasing levels of carbon emissions slowly polluting our atmospheres with more greenhouse gas. More mycelium and plants are needed and there needs to be less usage and burning of fossil fuels, coal, or anything that produces green house gas. Consideration of renewable sources of energy is a must.

2. How would you define the problem if you stood on the other side of the fence?

Large corporations need to start using their money on renewable sources of energy if they’re going to keep mass producing things with machines that run only on fossil fuels or coal. Deforestation needs to stop as this accounts for a percentage of the carbon emissions.

3. How did this situation occur in the first place?

It all started during the Industrial Revolution when people’s demands for things rose so high that start-up companies had to manufacture things with the help of both humans and machines, which run on solely fossil fuels and coal.

4. To whom, and what, do you give your loyalties to, as a person and as a member of the [institution]?

I’m loyal to this planet that we live on, so as a loyal citizen of this planet I must do what’s necessary in order to combat global warming, and save this world from climate change.

5. What is your intention in making this decision?

By growing mushrooms both indoors and outdoors for the environmental, nutritional, medicinal and physical benefits. When I go outdoors to go hunt for mushrooms during the wild edible gourmet mushroom season.

6. How does this intention compare with the likely results?

The intention of growing mushrooms indoors and outdoors can save people financially, as they would no longer have to buy them from the grocery store. Besides the environmental benefits, certain fungal species may also hold the ultimate mental health medicine for PTSD, anxiety, depression, alcoholism, drug addiction, and many more. Other than that, mushroom growing/hunting can be a fun hobby, and/or business depending on the goal we are aiming for.

7. Whom could your decision or action injure?

No one. As long as you are wearing the proper gear then you should be ok to go outdoors and hunt for wild edible gourmet mushrooms. Growing indoor/outdoor mushrooms have their standards so before you jump right into it, you should set aside a budget, time, and effort to learn what needs to be done for a successful growing operation.

8. Can you engage the affected parties in a discussion of the problem before you make your decision?

Absolutely, I would gladly explain to the affected parties that our planet and our health is more important than the planet slowly dying due to the surge of carbon emissions, which will one day cause catastrophic change to our planet. Global warming should be the number one priority besides humanity's mental health problems.

9. Are you confident that your position will be as valid over a long period of time as it seems now?

Yes, because I believe more and more people will learn about the benefits of mycelium to the planet, and certain fungi species to the mind. There are a lot of wild edible gourmet mushrooms that can be grown both indoors and outdoors, and can also be hunted outdoors, which can offer us both the exercise and nutritional value for our overall health.

10. Could you disclose, without qualms, your decision or action to your boss, your CEO, the board of directors, your family, or society as a whole?

If presented properly to the people who will set the judgmental personality aside, and have open minds to learn then anything is possible.

11. What is the symbolic potential of your action if understood? If misunderstood?

People may think that I’m advocating the use of magic mushrooms when I’m clearly advocating the overall benefits of mycelium and mushroom to our environment and physical/mental health.

12. Under what conditions would you allow exceptions to your stand?

When picking mushrooms at local parks beware of rangers as they may give you a citation ticket if caught picking mushrooms. It’s good practice to have a backpack and a grocery bag inside, so you can quickly pick mushrooms. Other park rules may vary.

References

Ballroom, Jr. (2017). Psychedelic Science 2017, Psilocybin Mushrooms and The Mycology of Consciousness. Retrieved 04/05/2018.

Blue Wind School of Botanical Studies. (2018). Edible & Medicinal Mushrooms of California: Weekend Workshop Winter Session, 2018. Retrieved 09/18/2018.

Brodsky, C. (2015). The Ukiah Daily Journal, Chatting with Teller Fennur. Retrieved 09/18/2018.

Fenner, T. (2018). Blue Wind School Of Botanical Studies, 2018 Winter-Spring-Summer Class Schedule. Retrieved 04/06/2018.

Mclamb, E. (2011). Ecology, The Ecological Impact of the Industrial Revolution. Retrieved 11/06/2018.

Mcrae, M. (2017). Science Alert, Researh Shows Magic Mushrooms Can Offer Real Benefits in Depression Therapy. Retrieved 04/05/2018.

Midwestgrowkits (2018). Midwestgrowkits, Midwestgrowkit. Retrieved 04/12/2018.

NASA (2018). NASA, Climate Change: How do we know? Retrieved 11/19/2018.

National Geographic (2007). Youtube, Global Warming 101 | National Geographic. Retrieved 11/19/2018.

Pettinger, T. (2017). EconomicsHelp, Pros and Cons of Capitalism. Retrieved 11/06/2018. 

Scharrf, C. (2014). Psychology Today, Can Psilocybin Mushrooms Help Cure Mental Illness? Retrieved 01/08/2019.

Simply Charly. (2018). Medium, Funny Face: How Ludwid Wittgenstein “invented” emojis. Retrieved 03/18/2019.

John Michael Wright. Artstack. Retrieved 03/18/2019.

Stamets, P. (2008). TED, 6 ways mushrooms can save the world. Retrieved 09/16/2018.

Stamets, P. (2009). Fungi Perfecti, The Search for Agarikon. Retrieved 04/05/2018.

Stamets, P. (2012). The Blog, Agarikon: Ancient Mushroom for Modern Medicine. Retrieved 04/05/2018.

Stamets, P. (2018). Youtube, Paul Stamets: Mycelium Makes Mushrooms, Mushrooms Make Mycelium. Retrieved 09/16/2018.

Stamets, P (2018). Fungi Perfecti, The Stamets Seminars. Retrieved 04/06/2018.

Stamets, P (2018). Fungi Perfecti, Mycelium Running. Retrieved 04/06/2018.

Union of Concerned Scientists (2018). Confronting the Realities of Climate Change. Retrieved 11/19/2018.

Now Reading
The Impact of The Industrial Age and The Rise of Capitalism
Read Next
The Health Benefits of Marijuana